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Archive for the ‘Yorkshire’ Category

Situation update from Hull

In Yorkshire on July 14 at 9:38 pm

14 Jul 1643 (Fri) || By Letters this day from the Lord Fairfax to the House of Commons, it was certified, That his Lordship¹ is in a very good condition at Hull, with about 1500 men; That only stayes there to recrewt his Forces, and intends very suddenly to advance again into the Field against the Popish Army, who of late do much tyrannize, by charging the Countrey with illegall Taxes and Compositions for Plundering; That Leeds and Bradford are for the present in the hands of the Popish Army, but he doubts not very suddenly to give accompt of some considerable service for the relief of the County against them. || A Perfect Diurnall of Some Passages in Parliament (P)

¹ i.e. Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax

Sir John Hotham and his son brought to London

In London, Yorkshire on July 11 at 9:19 pm

11 Jul 1643 (Tue) || Information was given to the Commons, that Sir John Hotham and his son were come from Hull to Tilbury Hope, where the Ship stayes, untill such time as Barges are sent down to fetch them up to London, Sir John writ in a Letter to the Speaker, to desire that he might not be brought thorow the City to the Parliament, but might come privately by water, he being so conscious of his own guiltinesse, that he now fears the reproach of the Londoners, as he did of the Inhabitants of Hull, when he was first apprehended, desiring to be conveyed away privately on Ship-board by a back way from Hull; for had he come thorow the Town, it is verily believed (such was the rage of the Inhabitants against him, then they perceived his treachery) that they would scarce have been withheld from tearing him to pieces.¹

The Commons also received Letters from the Maior and present Governours of Hull, Informing all the particulars in their securing of Hull, and apprehending of Sir John Hotham and his son, and Sir Edward Roades,² upon discovery of an intended designe to betray the Town to the Papists:³ But of this I conceive the whole Kingdom is already fully satisfied.

It was by the said Letterrs further certified, that since the apprehending of Sir John Hotham, the Earl of Newcastle sent a Letter to the Maior of Hull, offering great Rewards, and His Majesties Pardon and Protection, if he would secure the Town, or deliver it up unto him for His Majesties use, against the Parliament: But the Maior returned an Answer, That he scorned to betray the Cause, and Trust reposed in him for the King and Parliament, to a Popish Army, whose courses he saw tended to destruction, both of the King and Parliament.

Touching the late perfidious carriage of Sir John Hotham and his son, the Committee at Hull sent up to the Parliament the Examination upon Oath of a servant of Capt. Hothams, who saith, That he lived with the Captain about twelve yeers, That his Master was a good Master to him; and he speaketh nothing out of ill will or hatred: but being examined upon his Oath, he is willing to discharge his conscience in what he knoweth: And proves it fully, That there hath been a constant intercourse between the Queen, and Sir John Hotham, and his son especially, ever since her coming into those parts; And that Letters and Messages have passed betwixt them, till the very time of their apprehending; And since that Captain Hotham received a Pardon from the Queen, when he was prisoner at Nottingham Castle. And divers other matters proved against them which for the present (I conceive) are not fit to be divulged, and I shall omit to write of.  || A Perfect Diurnall of Some Passages in Parliament (P)

¹ Sir John had been governor of Hull since the start of the war. The relationship between the Hothams and Parliament – so strong at first that in 1642 Sir John denied the King access to his magazine in the town – had deteriorated to the point that Captain John (his son) was briefly imprisoned by their own side, and Sir John was preparing to defect to the Royalists when he was arrested for suspected treachery and sent with his son to London.
² Rhodes was subsequently released, as no evidence could be found against him.
³ i.e., the Royalists. In an intercepted letter, the King had advised the Earl of Newcastle not to use religion as a recruiting criterion; hence the myth had evolved that he deliberately recruited Catholics, and his was a “Papist” army.

Aftermath of Adwalton Moor

In Yorkshire on July 7 at 10:00 am

7 Jul 1643 (Fri) || You heard on munday the fortunate successe which God gave His Majestie in the great fight on Bradford-more, where the body of the Yorkish Rebells was beaten out of the field, and those of Lancashire beaten backe againe into their owne Country: Which field was fought on Friday, the last of June. And this day it was signified by an expresse, that the Earle of Newcastle following the course of his good fortune had presently laid seige to Bradford, bestowing on the same on Saurday morning, for a salutation no lesse then forty shot from his great Artillery: and plying the businesse very closely he made himselfe master of the Towne on the morrow after: in which he tooke 2000 Prisoners, with all the Arms, Horse, & Ammunition, which either the Rebels found in the towne, or brought thither with them. As for their Generall Fairfax, finding the town unable to hold out against so strong and valiant an enemie (the so much celebrated Club-men being strangely shrunke up and now unable to relieve his Lordship) he was fled thence the night before with only one Troope of Horse, and with great difficultie recovered Leedes. Which is no more then to shift his place not to better his condition. As also that the Rebells in the town of Halifax hearing of the successe of Bradford, did desert the place, which thereupon did instantly submit to his sacred Majesty: so that the warre in these parts is reduced to a narrow compasse; there being now no place of strength remaining to the Rebels, but Leedes and Hull, of which more tomorrow. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

Royalist victory at Adwalton Moor

In Yorkshire on July 3 at 12:13 am

3 Jul 1643 (Mon) || Newes came this day by an expresse of a great Victorie the Earle of New-Castle had obtained against the Rebels in the North; the substance of the which is this. The Rebels under the command of the Lord Fairfax being in a manner blocked up at Leedes, and finding their condition desperate, if they should be streightly besieged, were willing to do somewhat for their own preservation, before the Earle of New-Castle had made up his Army, which could not but be much diminshed by withdrawing of so many of his Forces both Horse and Foot, for a Convoy to the Queens Majesty. Notice whereof being given unto the rest of their faction dispersed up and downe the Country, especially unto their Brethren in Lancashire, and a day set to fall upon the Earle of New-Castle with all their power: they did accordingly issue out of Leedes with the greatest part of their Forces, leaving three hundred onely in the Towne to make good the Ports. The Earle being thus assaulted by so great a Force commanded a strong Partee of his choycest Horse to get betwixt them and the Towne; and so prepared himselfe to receive their charge; which was at first so strong and violent, that His Majesties Forces were fain to give ground untill they came within the reach of their owne Canon, which the Earle of New-Castle perceiving, he presently alighted from his Horse, went himselfe to his Foot, and taking a Pike into his hand, bid them follow him assuring them, not a man should goe further then he himselfe would lead them, bidding them now shew themselves for King Charles and their Countrey, and by the help of God they would not leave one Rebel in the North; wherby the Noble Earle so animated the whole Army that they charged with unexpressible courage, and so amazed the Rebels with the bravery of their coming on, that the Rebels soon fell into confusion, and were not brought againe into rank and order, till the Earle made himselfe master of the Rebels Canon, which he presently turned against the Rebels; The fight whereof wrought such astonishment amongst them, that they fled disorderly towards Leedes; but finding the passage intercepted by His Majesties Horse, they made what speed they could to recover Bradford, but the Earle so bravely pursued his victory, that in the Fight and chase there were killed and taken above 2000. whereof above 1500. Prisoners, 5. peeces of Canon taken, and all the rest shut up in Bradford and Leedes, whereof more anon. This newes as it was entertained with Bells and Bonefires, so a true Thanksgiving for it was appointed on the Thursday following to be held in all the principall Churches of Oxford, which was performed accordingly. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

Sir Thomas Fairfax takes Wakefield for the Parliament

In Yorkshire on May 28 at 12:16 pm

Sunday 28 May 1643 || The certainty and manner of the losse received at Wakefield by His Majestie, whereof there was a rumour the day before, was this day made knowne: it being certified by one who was present there, that the Enemy having appeared in view, and fallen of againe (as many times they use to doe) gave an assault upon the Towne on Sunday morning, May 21. after the Officers had beene up all night upon double watches; and forced their passage into it at a place where the workes were slightest. The noyse whereof coming to Colonell Goring, then sicke of a Feaver in his bed, hee got on horse-backe, and flew amongst the Rebels, with some few followers, couragiously making good the entries, till being over-pressed by the number of the Rebels, and not well seconded by his owne men, none but the Troopes of Captaine Carnaby and Captaine Lampton coming in to helpe him, hee was taken Prisoner. For the Souldiers there in Garrison being gone to rest after so long watching, and somewhat amazed at the suddainnesse of the accident; and withall being neither well advertised of the strength of the Enemy, nor in what numbers they had entred the Towne already, could not so easily be brought together; but that before the Colonell could be relieved, and the souldirs gathered into a body, the Rebels had possessed themselves of the streets and market-place. Upon report whereof the Horse made out of the Towne with all speed they could, and recovered Pontefract, so that but few of them were missing: a great part of the Foot escaped also thither, the rest being taken Prisoners, & some 30 slain. Sr Thomas Fairefaxe who had the conduct of the Rebels, was like to have payed dearely for his purchase, being so farre ingaged amongst His Majesties men before he was aware, that he might very easily have beene taken Prisoner if he had beene knowne; but finding his mistake before he was discovered, he got off againe and escaped the danger.

The taking of this Towne, as it was the greatest losse that hath befallen His Majestie in the North, during the course of all this Warre; so is it like to be the occasion of a greater good, in bringing the Warre there to a speedy end. For it was certified withall, that the Earle of Newcastle being advertised hereof at Sheafield, where he then resided, gave order for drawing Sir William Witherington [Widdrington] and Throckmortons Forces out of Derby-shire (some parts whereof he had brought lately under contribution) to the maine body of his Army, and the next morning marched to Doncaster, and that night to Pontefract, where Darcyes and Sibthorps Regiments being 1400 good men, and all well armed, came unto him also; 4000 Foot exceeding well appointed being commanded to be drawne up from other places, to joyne together with them for some speciall service. So that the Army now on foot is verily conceived to be a third part stronger, and ten times more inflamed, and better stomacked to the businesse then before they were: whereof wee doubt not but to heare somewhat shortly, which will give ample satisfaction for the late disaster. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

Colonel Lambourne sieges Earl of Cumberland’s property

In Yorkshire on April 22 at 8:44 pm

22 Apr 1643 (Sat) ||  Out of Yorkeshire it is informed, that one Colonell Lambourn, with some 1200. men besieged the Earle of Cumberlands house at Skipton in Craven, whereupon the Earle desired the Earle of Newcastle to send a Regiment of souldiers thither to raise the siege and free his house, which the Earle of Newcastle refused to do alleadging that he could not spare them from his present service; yet the Earle of Cumberland suing to the Queene, at length with much adoe obtayned a Regiment, and sent them to raise the siege, whereof Colonell Lambourn being advertised, he immediately left the siege, and meeting them upon the way, he encountred them, and utterly routed them, making them flie with shame and losse back again to their Quarter.  || William Ingler – Certaine Informations (P)

Minor skirmishing in North Yorkshire

In Yorkshire on April 4 at 8:56 pm

4 Apr 1643 (Tue) || This day it was advertised by Letters out of Yorkeshire, dated March 30, that the Kings Forces under the conduct of Colonell Goring, had given a great defeat unto the Rebels there. The particulars these. That upon Tuesday, March 28 Colonell Goring had brought about 1200 Foot, and 400 Horse to Wetherby, the body of the Earle of Newcastles Army lying at Molton, in the East-Riding; upon the noise whereof, the Rebels forthwith quitted Tadcaster, and drew their Forces both from Selby and Cawood also, which before they held, and put themselves into a body, under the leading of Sir Thomas Fairefax: that thereupon Colonell Goring sent to Yorke for more Horse and Dragoons, which were immediately sent unto him, doubling almost his former numbers, and so expected what they did intend to do against him: That upon Thursday March 30. he found they were gone backe with nine Colours, and two Troopes of Horse, besides their Club-men (whereof wee have such notable Romances in the London Newesbooks) to Tadcaster, and followed after them, the River being betwixt them, and the Bridge broken downe. That the Rebels perceiving their stay there to be neither safe at the present, or like to last any long time, (the Colonell having sent both for Foot and Ordinance to beat them out) marched away againe, some Muskets onely being discharged by either side: that Goring finding their intent, staid not in expectation of his Foot and Ordinance, which Lieutenant Generall King was bringing to him, but passed over the River with his Horse and Dragoons, followed them, and within five miles of Leedes gave a charge upon them, which fell so prosperously on his side, that he slew 200 of them in the place, tooke 800 Prisoners, seven Colours, and a Waggon loaden with Ammunition; all the rest utterly defeated, and Sir Thomas Fairefax faine to save his Horse by loosing his Foot, fled away to Leedes, where it is said they have him sure enough from escaping their hands, and that they meane not to leave Leedes till they get his person. And it was also certified, that when the Rebels came out of Cawood, (a Castle anciently belonging to the Archbishop of Yorke) upon no other reason, but because it was the Bishops house they set fire unto it, but that upon their going thence it was soone put out, one corner onely being burnt. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

Sir Hugh Cholmeley’s defection denounced by Parliament

In Yorkshire on April 4 at 8:36 pm

4 Apr 1643 (Tue) || Sir Hugh Cholmleys revolt and defection hath much grieved the Honourable House of Commons, because he was one of their Members in whom they had reposed a great deale of confidence for his firmenesse and constancy to their cause: but since they are assertained of this fact, they have voted him uncapable of fitting in their House againe; or ever to be a Member of any Parliament hereafter; and they have also voted him guilty of High Treason to the Kingdome, and that an Impeachment shall be drawne up against him to that purpose, upon which he shall be prosecuted, if he ever happen to be apprehended by any of their forces. And though he endeavoured to betray Scarborough Castle to their malicious Enemies, yet by Gods good Providence, and the timely comming thither of Captaine Browne Bushell with his Ship, his treachery was prevented, and the Castle is now safely secured for the King and Parliament. || William Ingler – Certaine Informations (P)

A summary of the military situation in Yorkshire

In Yorkshire on March 27 at 11:01 am

27 Mar 1643 (Mon) || Out of Yorkeshire it is informed, that the Earle of Newcastle hath (as it is conjectured by some that have beene at Yorke) neere 10000. men, the greater part of them being unarmed, and they are such as were forced to come to him out of the East and North Ridings, where his partie forcibly take horse, as well as men. The said Earle hath Stamford-Bridge, which Towne he hath well manned, he hath also New-Malton, and Birdlington [sic], where the Queene landed; in both which he hath Garrisons of Souldiers, onely Sir Hugh Cholmeley keepeth Scarborough, against whom the Earle hath sent some of his forces to drive him from thence, but Sir Hugh is strong enough there to defend himselfe. At Pontefract the Earle hath 160. Souldiers, who keepe the Castle there; but Sir William Fairefaxe went thither with seven Colours, and a Troope of Horse to force it, hee hath cut off the fresh water from the said Castle, and taken away the chaine and posts that were set up to defend that Towne.

As for the Lord Fairefaxe, he Quarters at Selby and Cawood Castle, with 3000. men; at Tadcaster he hath 1500. Souldiers to guard that Towne against all excursions from Yorke. At Leedes he hath a thousand armed men to defend that place; at Ferrybrigge he hath two Companies of foote; at Bradforth and Hallifaxe lie three hundred of his Souldiers to secure those places: at Sheafield he hath a thousand lusty men, and at Wakefield those forces were Quartered, that went with Sir William Fairefaxe to reduce Pontefract Castle and he hath as many Clubmen in the West Riding as can be desired. This is an exact account of the present forces on both sides in the County of Yorke. But withall, it is lately rumored, that many Protestants of the East and North Ridings, have deserted the Earles partie there, because the Queene would have a new Popish Standard carried in the front of the Army, which they utterly disliking, because all Papall power hath long since been banished out of this Kingdome by sundry Acts of Parliament, are fallen off from her cause, and either retired to their homes, or to the Lord Fairefaxe. || William Ingler – Certaine Informations (P)

Sir Hugh Cholmeley defects to the King

In Yorkshire on March 26 at 8:40 pm

Sunday 26 Mar 1643 || There is a common rumour about the Town that Sir Hugh Cholmley (who hath done very good service for the King and Parliament) is revolted to the Popish Army in Yorkeshire, but because there is no certaine newes come to that purpose as yet out of that County there is no credit to be given thereunto, for the intelligencer cannot believe that a Gentleman of his worth and having continued so long constant to the cause, should at this time (when it appears plainly that the mayn holders of this warre are the Papists) desert the cause … || A Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages

This day the news of Sir Hugh Cholmley’s coming over to His Majesty, received both confirmation and addition: for besides that, it was certainly assured, that he was come unto the Earle of Newcastle, accompanied with 80. horse, and 400 foote, well armed and appointed for present service; and had delivered up the Towne and Castle of Scarborough: it was affirmed also that the whole body of the Rebels under the conduct of the Lord Fairefax and the two Hothams, whereof such formidable tales are told in the London Newesbookes, exceeded not above 4000 men, and those so terribly discouraged for want of pay (which is full 13 weeks behind,) and by the ill successe of their undertakings, in which they never had good luck, that of Leedes excepted, that they are not likely to be any hinderance to my Lord of Newcastles proceedings. Which weaknes and indisposition of the Rebels, as it is very increased by the returne of Sir Hugh Cholmley unto his duty and obedience, not so much in regard of the men and Armes which he brought with him, as in respect of his authority in that County, and his being privy to the Counsells and designes of the chiefe Actors in this Rebellion, (besides the dangerousnesse of the example) so are their hopes growne desperate of supplies from London. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)