Tyger's Head Books

Posts Tagged ‘notable deaths’

The first Battle of Newbury: Parliamentarian account (Mercurius Britanicus)

In Berkshire on September 20 at 2:45 am

20 Sep 1643 (Wed) || [The Earl of Essex] marched for Newbery on Tuesday, but when he came within two miles of the Towne, the enemy appeared on the top of the hill, with horse and Artillery, so that night also his Excellency lay in the fields, our army being very hardly put to it for victualls, having no bread, the enemy having swept the Country round about of all victualls, and what wine or bear [beer] they could not make use of themselves, they staved the vessells, letting all run out in wast, purposely that our army might not have any use of it, to the extreame losse of the Countrey: On wednesday by day breake, the enemies foot were come to the hill, and by six a clocke both the enemies horse and foot were put in Batalia, and gave us an over-shot, we called a Councell of Warre, and though our much wearinesse and want of victualls were sufficient motives to have caused us to have declined the battell that day: yet such was the Noble courage of his Excellency, that to try his Souldiers mindes, he went from Regiment to Regiment, and put the question of a battell unto them, telling them the enemy had all the advantages, as the hill, the Towne, the hedges, the lanes and the river, they all cried let us fall on, we will beat them from them all; and in six houres fight our foot with the assistance of our horse gained all, and we planted our Ordnance on the top of the hil, where the Kings Ordnance began first to play upon us, and then we were on equall tearmes with the enemy for ground, but the Kings foot, we beate from hedge to hedge, and so scattered them that hardly a foor Souldier was to be seem except the dead bodies they had left on the ground, having drawne off thirty seven cart loads of their slaine, before we got the hill. The enemy seeing their foot utterly routed, and like to loose their Ordnance, wheeled about with a great body of horse, and about three quarters of a mile below the hill, fell upon the Rear of our Army, where our carriages were, which occasioned us to withdraw a part of our army from off the hill to assist that Brigade that was engaged, who cut off many of the Kings horse, but in the interim the enemy drew off their Ordnance to Newbery, and carried away 30. cart loads of wounded men, the fight continued till eleven at night; our souldiers in all this fight could not get water to drink: his Excellencie, during this battell, behaved himselfe with as noble and valiant resolution, as ever did Generall in any battell, himselfe in person leading up the City-Regiments, and when the enemies horse had broken thorow them, he rallied them together, and led them on againe. The enemy lost the Earles of Carnarvan, and Sunderland, and Lord Faulkland, besides severall Lords were carried away in coaches desperately wounded: The King was so sore put to it (being there in person to behold the destruction of his Subjects with no small content to the Queene) that he was forced to command his principall secretary of State, and such neer attendants on him to help or all was lost: His Excellency with the foot body of his Army, kept the field, he had wun, all night long, and Colonell Middleton with the horse was likewise possest of the Kings field quartering for his horse, and stad there all night also, and the next day Prince Rupert sent a trumpet to beg the body of the Lord Faulkland; and yet I beleeve at Oxford they will be so impudent, as to say they lost not an inch of ground, nor one Lord slaine or hurt, most of their foot that were slaine, they stript as they fell, except some poore beggerly Welch, which lay by douzens and twenties in heaps in ditches and other places, where we stood all night; they lost in number neer six for one; Men of note that were slaine on our side: Colonell Bamfield; Colonell Tucker a City Colonell, and Captaine Ware Captaine of Horse, and Captaine Hurt, and two of foot more. Those of the enemy that were taken prisoners confesse they lost at least 3000. on the place. || Robert White & George Bishop – Mercurius Britanicus (P)


The first Battle of Newbury: Royalist account (Mercurius Aulicus)

In Berkshire on September 20 at 2:35 am

20 Sep 1643 (Wed) || And this day by 7 of the clock in the morning, His Majesty saw the Rebels seated in the most advantagious place imaginable, their Foot, Horse, & Cabbob so planted for their own preservation, and annoyance to His Majesty, upon a Hill among Hedges, that they were confident the Kings Army would destroy it selfe by assaulting them upon so many desperate disadvantages. For they had perceived His Majesty to pursue them so eagerly (having stollen from Him before) that they beleeved the Kings Forces would wave no difficulty or odds to gaine a blow at them, He being very suspicious lest they should steale away againe; and therefore His Majesty was forced first to fight for a place to fight on, the Rebels having chosen all before, which He did, and in despight of all the Rebels planted cannons, Foot and Horse, beat them from their ground and gain’d the Hill, they in the interim lying among Bushes and behind Hedges, (their old chosen security) out of which they stood pelting the rest of the day, and wither they fled so fast that  they left one of their best peeces of Brasse Ordnance on the Hill for His Majesties service.

This Hill (neare Newbury) and Enborne Heath, were the two places where most of this Battaile was fought, upon as great disadvantages (if anything may be said to have odds over a good cause and valiant men) as are almost a shame for bragging Rebels to accept of. Upon the Heath the Rebels Horse were soone routed by His Majesties with good execution, which would have beene more had they stayed longer; the chiefe Commanders of Horse for His Majesty (besides Prince Rupert and the Lord Wilmot Lieutenant Generall, whose presence and personall valour was no small encouragement to the rest) were the three most Noble and valiant Lords, the Earle of Carnarvon, the Earle of Northampton, and the Lord Chandoys, Sir Charles Lucas, Colonell Charles Gerard, and Lieutenant Colonell [Daniel] Oneale, who all did [fight] now as their Custome is, that is, as bravely as any men alive, and so indeed did all the rest of the Gallant Gentlemen. In this fight was slaine the most valiant and matchlesse Earle of Carnarvon, one whose blood and memory is so pretious to his Majesties Army, that as well the conspirators as the Armed Rebels shall hereafter feele they have murthered the Earle of Carnarvon, and so he that killed him did in another world within a minute afterwards. Besides this incomparable Earle there were killed the Noble Earle of Sunderland, Colonell Morgan, Lieutenant Colonell Fielding, and some Gentlemen Voluntiers, as Master Stroud as others, whose names will live to posterity, and cause a more lasting infamy on this odious Rebellion. There were hurt in this fight of the prime Officers, the Lord Andover, Sir Charles Lucas, Colonell Charles Gerard, Colonell Ivers, and some lower Officers, and of the Voluntiers, the two Noble Earles of Carlisle and Peterborough, Master John Russell, Master Edward Sackville, Master Henry Howard, Master George Porter, Master Progers, and some other worthy Gentlemen who upon this sudden are not made knowne to me, thought not any I can heare of whose wounds are dangerous.

Thus on the Heath by the Horse onely, and on the Hill the Horse and Foot did as bravely, the Foot commanded by Sir Nicholas Byron, the Horse by Sir John Byron, who forced the seated Rebels from their chosen Hill (though it was somewhat long disputed) and kept it from them. The chiefe Officers that were hurt were Colonell Darcy, Lieutenant Colonell George Lisle, who bravely led up the forlorne hope, and Lieutenant Colonell Edward Villiers: that noble and learned Lord, the L. Viscount Falkland being most unfortunately slaine there, with some other worthy Gentlemen who were also hurt, whereof you may have a more particular accompt hereafter. For the number slaine, upon a more serious enquiry we cannot finde 200 slaine of his Majesties Forces, though, without partiality we may speake it, the Rebels lost above three for one.

Now if you will shew me what Lords and Gentlemen were in the Rebels Army, I shall tel you how many of them are slain, for indeed the world knowes this rebellious war aymes at the ruine of all Nobles and Gentry, as well as of the King, the Rebels Forces, for the most part, consisting of such cattell as were never thought fit to dye by the Sword: and yet their prisoners say, if any of thatlying faction may be credited, that Manwaring of London, Co. Greaves, Captain S. Barb, yong Meldrom, and young Belfour are slain, and a great many more of their prime leaders whose names we shall hereafter learn more perfectly. Much of the slaughter fell upon the London trained bands, and their auxiliaries, many of whose Buffe coats our Souldiers now have, for indeed the Londoners were put upon the worst and hardest service. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

Skirmish at Aldbourne Chase

In Wiltshire on September 19 at 2:27 am

19 Sep 1643 (Tue) || Notice being brought to His Majesty (who was then at Evesham) of the Rebels stealing away the Horse and Foot, had ordered to pursue them will all diligence that could be made, wherein so much expedition and courag was used, that on Septemb. 19. being Monday, His majesties Foot marching towards Wantage, Prince Rupert with the whole Body of Horse advanced on the right hand to finde them out; and about three of the clocke in the afternoone had a view of the Rebels whole Army in a bottome neere Auberne [Aldbourne] in Wiltshire, where he gave them two charges, the first by the commanded party under Colonell Urry, who fell upon the Reere of their Horse, slew divers of them in the place, tooke two Coronets & drave them in great confusion through the Village, where they blew up two overturned Carriages of Ammunition into the body of their Army. After an houres standing in Battalia, in as good a forme as their feare and disorder would permit, they began to march againe; and the Prince to give them a second charge, adding the Queenes Regiment as a reserve to the commanded partee, and his owne Brigade to follow both. At the first approach of ours, the Horse appointed to bring up the Reere ran within their Foot, and brought ours so neere, that it was necessary to decline them by marching on the right hand, where two great Bodies of their Horse came downe a Hill, and in very good order received ours after the discharge of their Carbines and Pistols, with their Swords: but without any other effect on us then a slight wound on the Lord Jermyns arme, and a shot on the Lord Digby’s head peece, and the losse of some three or foure of our men: After a short conflict leaving divers of their Souldiers and Officers dead upon the place they turned about in their wonted confusion and speed, and were so farre pursued by ours, that the Lord Jermyn with part of his Regiment found himselfe so engaged amongst them, that there remained no way of returning to the Prince, but by charging through their Foot, which accordingly was done with so much judgement, courage, and good succese, that passing through three severall Bodies of Foot they threw downe their Armes, and were put to flight, and he with the whole company that was with him excepting onely Lieutenant Constable (who is still missing) and the Marquesse de la Vieuville, who was first taken Prisoner, and afterward inhumanely slain in cold blood, came safely off to the body of our Horse, which were this time (night drawing on) retired to the Hill, from whence they began their charge.  || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

When our army came to Awborne-hills, the Kings horse appeared in severall bodies, to the number of foure-hundred, and would faine have charged our army in parts, but with much skirmishing our horse kept them off the foot, slew of the enemy on the place eighty, and wounded neere upon three hundred more, the Marquisse of Viville was taken prisoner, and had quarter given him, but as he was marching away with the Lieutenant that had taken him prisoner, he drew out a pocket Pistoll and shot him, but proved not mortall, hereupon the Lieutenant with his Polax clave his head asunder; and his Excellency commanded his body to be carried to Hungerford, and to be left there, for her Majestie to send for, is she pleased; It was her Majesties Regiment of horse that was so shattered on Awborne hills, and most of her life guard were cut off. It was Monday night late before our army got to Hungerford, where his Excellency staid not an houre, there not being provisions for the tenth part of his army, either for horse or foot; so marched for Newbery on Tuesday… || Robert White & George Bishop – Mercurius Britanicus (P)

The Parliament had an exact relation of the whole passages of the fight … by some Officers of the Army that came from my Lord Generall the last night; by whom it is certified (as you heard before) that after the fight on Monday neer Hungerford, where Marquesse De La vive was slain, his corps [was] brought into Hungerford, and since ransomed by the Kings partie for 500 Pieces. || Samuel Pecke – A Perfect Diurnall (P)

His Majesties Infantery was now at Wantage, from whence the Prince desired they would march directly to Newbury with all possible expedition, the Horse that night refereshing themselves at Lamborne, and the Rebels in the meane time with much amazement wandring to Hungerford, for though it were but foure miles distant, they arrived not till next morning at six of the clock. Notwithstanding this travaile, they conceived such a necessity of haste, that allowing onely some howers halt to the Souldiers, they advanced presently towards Newbury, but by a long and speedy march, His Majesty being come up with the grosse of the Army prevented the Rebels of that accommodation, and having deprehended some of their Quarter-masters, lodged there himselfe. All the Horse and some commanded Muskettiers were then immediately drawne out beyond the water towards the Rebels,¹ their whole Body being within two miles and a halfe at most, so as the parties fell to skirmish one with the other, but without effect, till night did separate them. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

¹ i.e., the River Kennet

Royalist victory at Roundway Down

In Wiltshire on July 15 at 9:42 pm

15 Jul 1643 (Sat) || This was a day of joy, & most happy tidings, from the beginning to the end. Newes came betimes to Towne by Sir Robert Welch who was sent on purpose with that errand, that the Troopes of horse, which His Majesties had designed for the Westerne service, being come on Thursday about foure in the aftenoone, within three miles of the Devises, were met with by the Rebels forces, who lay betwixt them and the Towne, on Roundway-Downe (for so the place is usually called) to hinder them from joyning with the rest of the Army. The fight was first begun betwixt some Regiments of horse on eachside, and carried for a time on both sides with equall successe, But at last the Rebels horse beginning to retreate to the rest of their strength, which lay not farre off on an hill, Waller drew out his Foot, and commanded them to give the on-set; which whilest they repaired to do, the beaten Horse most valiantly fled the field and left the Foot (as usually they doe) unto slaughter, all of which (very few excepted) were either killed or taken Prisoners. Waller himselfe perceiving for the world went with him, followed his fugitive Horse, with as much diligence and speed as could be; and (as ’tis said) got a most terrible fall in his hasty flight, which endangered his life; leaving His Majesties Forces absolute Masters of the field.

And we may clearely say this was a most absolute victory, for His Majesties souldiers totally routed the Rebels Army, slew full 600 of them in the place, tooke above 900 prisoners, tooke All their cannon, being 7 faire brasse peeces, All their ammunition, which was a very great quantity, All their waggons and Baggage, among which one Cart loaden with Manacles (for the Liberty of the Subject) with all the Victuall which that seditious Country had abundantly brought in, Tooke also all their Armes, but what the fugitive Troopers had in their hands also, 28 Colours of foot, 9 Cornets of horse, and left not one Rebell but what was either killed, taken prisoner, or narrowly saved his life by his heels. Waller had formerly at severall times surprized 113 of the Kings souldiers, which 113 were now all releived, together with such other goods and plunder as he heretofore had gained at Malmsbury and Hereford, But that which made the Victory most sweet, was that few of His Majesties souldiers were slaine in this service, and not any of note but that worthy and valiant Gentleman Master Dudly Smith, who made the Rebells pay deare for his life before they had it. What eminent service was done by particular men, I shall not mention, the chiefe Commanders, and such as in this expedition (we are sure) deserved best, being unwilling to be named, as sensible that God Alnighty’s extraordinary mercy wrought this blessing for His Majesty; for this confluence of Rebellious Forces were almost treble to those His Majesty now sent, the Rebels having five Regiments of foot consisting of about 2500, six Regiments of horse containing full 2000, besides 500 dragooners, with 8 peeces of brasse ordnance; the forces sent by His Majestie being but 1500 horse only, with 2 small peeces of Cannon.  || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

The Battle of Lansdowne

In Somerset on July 8 at 6:46 pm

8 Jul 1643 (Sat) || The cheife intelligence of the day was the Westerne newes, which therefore was the more look’d after, because somebody out either out of feare or knavery had spread a false rumour that His Majesties Forces in the West had been worsted by Sir William Waller, which was most impudently false, as you shall heare by an impartiall collection out of 3 severall Expresses from such hands (should I name them) you would say are not capable of a lye.

On Wednesday July 5. Sir William Waller advanc’d with his whole Bodie upon the hither end of Lands downe, a place of very great advantage, whence he sent out a good Partee of Horse and Foot towards us, lyning the Hedges towards our champane, and there advanced a strong Partee of Horse under the protection of their Muskettiers, & some of our Horse being drawne out within musket shot, retired in some disorder towards the Reere of our Foot, whereupon Sir Bevill Greenvill and Sir Nicholas Slannings Regiments of Cornish Foot advance’d and bravely beat them out of the Hedges, but our Horse speedily rallyed again and recovered their ground: then a strong Partee of their Horse drew into a large Field upon our left Wing, which our Horse charged and entirely rowted, and our Cornish Foot drove theirs from Hedge to Hedge, through Woods and steepe Hills back to their maine Bodie, and at last forc’d them from the brow of the Hill which they had barrocadoed, and whereupon they had planted their Canon. For the ground they had was of mighty advantage, being a high Hill walled about behind and upon both sides, with works in the Front, the passage up very narrow and dangerous, one side being a Wood, the other full of hedges, both of them strongly lined with Muskettiers; and having gotten this ground wee found the Enemie in an entire Body, his Foot placed within certaine stony walls of great strength, through which he had prepared divers places for his Horse to sallye, being drawne up in Battalio in the reere of his foot. Before our Horse and Foot could draw up in Battalia they charged us with their Horse, and played so thick upon us with their Cannon and Muskettiers, that they (by advantage of the place) forc’d us from the hill, which notwithstanding wee assaulted againe and againe three severall times, and the fourth time with unimaginable difficulty wee possessed the top of it, which Sir Bevill Greenvill maintayned with his stand of Cornish Pikes against all their power of Horse, Foot, and Cannon, to the wonder and amazement of both friends and enemies, where this brave gentleman was most honourably, though unfortunately slayne in the front of his men, with his Serjeant Major and Captaine Lieutenant dead at his feet, ending his life with as much honour, as mortall flesh is capable of. Then wee rallyed our Horse and drew up our Cannon, and by that time it grew darke, notwithstanding shot of all sorts played on each side till midnight, when the Rebels stuck their Matches on the Hedges, upon which wee gave a volley from every part of our Bodie, which instead of answering they ran quite away, leaving us the Field, where wee found above 500. Muskets, 14. Barrells of Powder, a whole stand of Pikes, together with good store of all sorts of Armes, they having stollen away their Cannon when they left their light Matches. All which in the morning wee having carefully searched and viewed, our men being much tyred with extreame labour, and pin’d with hunger, retired into our Quarter. The Fight lasted from two in the afternoon till one the next morning, wherein (besides Sir Bevill Greenvill before mentioned) were slaine of His Majesties Forces 8. Officers and Gentlemen of note, viz. master Leak sonne to the Lord Daincourt, who with one Troop charged three of the Rebels Troops (being their Forlorne hope) where the brave Gentleman was slayn and found dead on the ground with a Colour taken of the Rebels found in his Armes; Master Barker a gallant Gentleman, which had each had a brother in the same Troop (Master Charles Leak and young Master Barker) who bravely revenged their brothers death; lieutenant Colonell Wall, Serjeant Major Lower, Captaine James, Captaine Cholwell, & Master Bostard, who all behaved themselves as well as possibly men could do, but of Common Soldiers so few as tis not credible in so long and disadvantageous Battaile as this was. The Rebels Foot were absolutely routed, and all dispersed or cut off, his losse of Officers and Horse very great, though wee know not the particulars as yet, wee are confident wee kill’d many hundred of his men, having the Field, the Armes, Pillage, and all other signes of an absolute Victory.  || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)

John Hampden’s death reported

In Buckinghamshire on June 30 at 2:49 pm

30 Jun 1643 (Fri) || It hath pleased God to call to his mercy, that worthy and valiant Gentleman Colonell Hampden, who died lately at Thame in Oxfordshire of a fever, which was caused by the late shot he received in the late bickering at Chinner in the said County, who, as he lived, so he died, humbly, and sincerely to his God, and faithfull to the King and Parliament.  || William Ingler – Certaine Informations (P)

Earl of Denbigh reported dead

In Uncategorized on April 15 at 6:46 pm

15 Apr 1643 (Sat) || The Reader is to be advertised, that the Earle of Denbigh, having beene wounded at the taking of Burmingham, was somewhat well recovered of that danger, but that since having beene overthrowne in his Coach, by a carelesse Coachman, his wounds brake out againe so sorely, that he died shortly after. || John Berkenhead/Peter Heylyn – Mercurius Aulicus (R)